The most direct application of this study is in the field of artificial intelligence.Au contraire, pussycats. The most direct application of these ideas is to quantify the computing power of an alien architecture presenting itself to known systems. How fast is it? Is it multi-threaded, massively parallel, or quantum architecture? Of course, it wasn't worth the $35.95 they want for the full paper, since I'm less interested in the concept of "intelligence" than I am in grokking the "cognitive architecture" of an alien system.
My from-a-distance "net net" of their using "…mathematical and computational concepts in order to encompass all these conditions…" is that they haven't yet stumbled onto a few more more obvious ways to evaluate an alien system. Then again, I'll limit my "Einstein thought experiments" to my next novel.